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How to bias Op Amp for output voltage range

- Thursday, March 30, 2017 No Comments
In this tutorial we show how to bias Op Amp for output voltage range. Many times we require specific output voltage swing from operational amplifiers(op-amps). The process of creating such desired output voltage swing range is called Biasing Op-Amps or creating DC offset. In short it means supplying DC voltage to one of the input terminal so that without any input(from the other input) the output voltage is fixed at some voltage.

Suppose we have an inverting amplifier using an op-amp like LM324 op-amp. The negative input is supplied with your signal but let's assume there is no input signal at this pin. The positive input is then biased or DC offset with some DC voltage. Say that you want the output voltage range to be between 0V and 3V so that the midpoint is 1.5V. So in this case, the positive input terminal of the op-amp is biased or DC offset at 1.5V. With no input at negative terminal the output will be at 1.5V. That is 1.5V acts as our origin or center point. Any input at the negative terminal will then oscillate around the 1.5V. This process of designing the DC offset is called Op-amp biasing.

Such biasing is required for example when you want to see both negative and positive excursion of AC signal. Without proper biasing, the AC signal might get clipped.

First see a normal inverting op-amp amplifier circuit shown below.


The input signal VSINE has amplitude of 100mV and frequency of 1KHz. The supply voltage to the LM324 is 3V. The amplifier gain is 10. Now see the output and input waveform.


As you can see the output signal is clipped.

Now lets say we have center the output voltage at 1.5 volt. For this we need to add a voltage divider biasing circuit that creates 1.5V and apply it to the positive terminal of the op-amp. That is shown below.


The input and output waveform in this case is shown below.


As you can see the output signal is dead, the amplification has been lost. To remedy this we connect the same value of resistor as that used in the voltage divider circuit which is 10KOhm and connect it between the +V supply voltage and the input signal at negative terminal as shown below.

How to bias Op Amp for output voltage range

If we now view the input and output waveform we will see that the output signal is restored and that its center is at 1.5V as desired.


Notice that the output signal is still inverted as expected from inverting amplifier.

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Download Raspberry Pi Cookbook for Python Programmers PDF free

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Download Raspberry Pi Cookbook for Python Programmers PDF free by Tim Cox. The Raspberry Pi foundation has been selling their computers since 2012 with the aim of inspiring programmers and engineers.
Raspberry Pi Cookbook for Python Programmers is a practical guide for getting the most out of this little computer. It will guide you through the many uses of the Raspberry Pi and allow you to showcase the best it has to offer. Discover what the Raspberry Pi has to offer using detailed Python 3 examples that you can adapt and extend see where your creativity takes you!


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Download Communication Satellite Antennas PDF free

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Download Communication Satellite Antennas PDF free. This book is presents practical approach to Antenna technology for communication satellites. This authoritative resource discusses antenna technology for communication satellites, addressing both the space and user segments. The book provides a system view of antenna applications, a description of various antenna technologies, and guidance on methodologies for antenna evaluation.Communication Satellite Antennas begins with an overview of the parameters that characterize antennas, and goes on to cover the antenna designs, technologies, and system architectures required for communication satellite systems. Techniques to mitigate interference are covered, and the processes used in the development and characterization of antenna systems are reviewed. Discover how to:- Adhere to the system parameters used to quantify antenna performance -Understand the technologies used in wide coverage, earth coverage, narrow coverage, and array antennas- Work within standard communication satellite system architectures and orbital alternatives- Address propagation limitations and link performance- Implement reliable antenna interference mitigation techniques- Develop space segment antennas, including spot beam, multiple beam, adaptive uplink, active aperture, and point-to-point antennas- Apply user segment technologies, such as reflector antenna technology, antenna sidelobe control techniques, and adaptive interference cancellation systems- Evaluate satellite antennas and systems using rigorous methodologies.





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Download Circularly Polarized Antennas PDF free

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 Download Circularly Polarized Antennas PDF free by Steven (Shichang) Gao, Qi Luo, Fuguo Zhu.

This book presents a comprehensive insight into the design techniques for different types of CP antenna elements and arrays
In this book, the authors address a broad range of topics on circularly polarized (CP) antennas. Firstly, it introduces to the reader basic principles, design techniques and characteristics of various types of CP antennas, such as CP patch antennas, CP helix antennas, quadrifilar helix antennas (QHA), printed quadrifilar helix antennas (PQHA), spiral antenna, CP slot antennas, CP dielectric resonator antennas, loop antennas, crossed dipoles, monopoles and CP horns.
Advanced designs such as small-size CP antennas, broadband, wideband and ultra-wideband CP antennas are also discussed, as well as multi-band CP antennas and dual CP antennas. The design and analysis of different types of CP array antennas such as broadband CP patch arrays, dual-band CP arrays, CP printed slot arrays, single-band and multi-band CP reflectarrays, high-gain CP waveguide slot antennas, CP dielectric resonator antenna arrays, CP active arrays, millimetre-waveband CP arrays in LTCC, and CP arrays with electronically beam-switching or beam-steering capabilities are described in detail. Case studies are provided to illustrate the design and implementation of CP antennas in practical scenarios such as dual-band Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) receivers, satellite communication mobile terminals at the S-band, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) readers at 2.4 GHz, and Ka-band high-speed satellite communication applications. It also includes the detailed designs for a wideband Logarithmic spiral antenna that can operate from 3.4-7.7 GHz. In addition, the book offers a detailed review of the recent developments of different types of CP antennas and arrays.
Presents comprehensive discussions of design techniques for different types of CP antennas: small-size CP antennas, broadband CP antennas, multi-band CP antennas and CP arrays.
Covers a wide range of antenna technologies such as microstrip antennas, helix, quadrifilar helix antenna, printed quadrifilar helix antenna, dielectric resonator antennas, printed slots, spiral antennas, monopoles, waveguide slot arrays, reflectarrays, active arrays, millimetre-wave arrays in LTCC, electronically beam-switching arrays and electronically beam-steerable arrays.
Reviews recent developments in different types of CP antennas and arrays, reported by industries, researchers and academics worldwide.
Includes numerous case studies to demonstrate how to design and implement different CP antennas in practical scenarios.
Provides both an introduction for students in the field and an in-depth reference for antenna/RF engineers who work on the development of CP antennas.
Circularly Polarized Antennas will be an invaluable guide for researchers in R&D organizations system engineers (antenna, telecom, space and satellite) postgraduates studying the subjects of antenna and propagation, electromagnetics, RF/microwave/millimetre-wave systems, satellite communications and so on technical managers and professionals in the areas of antennas and propagation.


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Download Signals and systems laboratory with MATLAB PDF free

- Wednesday, March 29, 2017 No Comments

Download Signals and systems laboratory with MATLAB PDF free

With its exhaustive coverage of relevant theory, Signals and Systems Laboratory with MATLAB® is a powerful resource that provides simple, detailed instructions on how to apply computer methods to signals and systems analysis. Written for laboratory work in a course on signals and systems, this book presents a corresponding MATLAB implementation for each theoretical concept introduced, making it a powerful learning tool for engineers, scientists, and students alike.
MATLAB code is used in problems and examples presented throughout the book. This code and other learning materials are available in a downloadable supplement. Due to the extensive―and truly unique―integration of MATLAB throughout this book, the authors provide a complete tutorial on use of the language for signals and systems analysis. With more than 5,000 lines of MATLAB code and more than 700 figures embedded in the text, the material teaches readers how to program in MATLAB and study signals and systems concepts at the same time, giving them the tools to harness the power of computers to quickly assess problems and then visualize their solutions.
Among its many useful features, this book:

  • Offers complete coverage of the signals and systems theory, starting with elementary signals and concluding with state-space modeling
  • Contains more than 400 examples and chapter-end solved problems
  • Executes commands one-by-one at the MATLAB command prompt, and results, along with comments, encouraging students to learn MATLAB on the fly 
Additional Pedagogical Features:
  • A detailed MATLAB tutorial to introduce a beginner programmer to the language
  • Laboratory exercises that give students hands-on experience and help professors organize a course laboratory component
  • Presentation of continuous- and discrete-time in parallel fashion, effectively illustrating the similarities and differences between the two
  • Step-by-step examples that present data in tabular format and usually offer several different solutions to each problem



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See also Radar Signal Analysis and Processing Using MATLAB PDF free download and Download MATLAB Programming for Engineers 4th Edition by Stephen J. Chapman PDF free

Download Raspberry Pi Essentials PDF free

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Download Raspberry Pi Essentials PDF free

About This Book

  • Utilize the exciting capabilities of the Raspberry Pi to build unique audio, video, and robotic designs
  • Get familiar with the bare essentials of basic programming and hardware tasks on the Raspberry Pi
  • Learn the Raspbian OS and its standard applications with the help of this easy-to-follow, quick-reference guide

Who This Book Is For

Programmers new to the Raspberry Pi and novice programmers with little to no experience with micro board computing will find the book useful. A basic knowledge of programming languages in general will prove useful for a better understanding of the topics.

What You Will Learn in Raspberry Pi Essentials

  • Build your own full-fledged Raspberry Pi hardware and install the Raspbian OS
  • Configure the Raspberry Pi development environment and get acquainted with OS configuration and tools
  • Build a camera-based project using PiCam and USB cameras
  • Build and configure a stereo audio system using VLC
  • Explore the Raspberry Pi GPIO to connect to the outside world
  • Utilize and explore extensive I2C interface support built into the Raspberry Pi to enhance your system
  • Configure remote access and battery power for a mobile Raspberry Pi
  • Build a fully functional Raspberry Pi line-following robot using PiCam

Raspberry Pi Essentials In Detail

The Raspberry Pi is an inexpensive, single-board computer system about the size of a deck of cards. This computer can be configured to use a standard-size keyboard, monitor, and mouse.
The book begins by teaching you how to build and configure a Raspberry Pi development environment.
Next, you will get acquainted with concepts such as connecting USB peripherals for video and image capture, and high-quality audio. Using GPIO peripherals, you will drive LEDs and sense switches and connect SMBUS-controlled peripherals. Over the course of eight chapters, you will gain experience with desktop tools, the shell command line, and Python scripts.
This book includes hands-on projects that involve building a talking clock, creating a camera-based movement detection system, developing an Internet radio, building an RC-servo control program, configuring remote access to a Raspberry Pi, and building a line-following robot.



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1. Download Raspberry Pi Embedded Projects PDF free
2. Download Raspberry Pi Computer Architecture Essentials PDF free 


Download CAD of Microstrip Antennas for Wireless Applications PDF free

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Download CAD of Microstrip Antennas for Wireless Applications PDF free


The purpose of this text is to help develop an understanding of the operation of microstrip antennas and supply the tools necessary for design work. 3 1/2 inch disk included. DLC: Microstrip antennas - Design - Data processing.



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Other free antenna books- Download All About Vertical Antennas PDF free, Antenna Toolkit by Joseph Carr PDF free download, Download Approximate Antenna Analysis for CAD PDF free

Download Approximate Antenna Analysis for CAD PDF free

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Download Approximate Antenna Analysis for CAD PDF free


 This step-by-step guide provides the reader with a detailed and thorough introduction to practical antenna design and model implementation
In this book, Hubregt J. Visser provides an introduction to the fundamentals of antenna design and the implementation of design models. A variety of antennas for wireless applications and communications systems are explained, and the real-life use of the antennas is demonstrated through extensive use of application examples. The author includes discussions on the design process of several antennas, such as intravascular MR Antennas, PCB antennas, RFID antennas, rectennas etc. Furthermore, emphasis is placed on Computer Aided Design (CAD) using approximated models.
Key FeaturesIncludes coverage on intravascular MR Antennas, PCB antennas, RFID antennas, rectennas, etc Comprehensively details the application areas, modeling, analysis, and validation processes for individual antennas Discusses the use of equivalent dipole antennas, equivalent transmission line networks and electrostatics Introduces many antennas and models that have not been covered in previous publications (such as MRI Antennas, for example). See also Patch antenna design tutorial with CST microwave.

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This book will be of interest to microwave and antenna engineers. Graduate and post-graduate antennas students studying BSc and MSc courses, as well as research assistants will also find this book insightful.Content:
Chapter 1 Introduction (pages 1–17):
Chapter 2 Intravascular MR Antennas: Loops and Solenoids (pages 19–96):
Chapter 3 PCB Antennas: Printed Monopoles (pages 97–138):
Chapter 4 RFID Antennas: Folded Dipoles (pages 139–181):
Chapter 5 Rectennas: Microstrip Patch Antennas (pages 183–219):
Chapter 6 Large Array Antennas: Open?Ended Rectangular?Waveguide Radiators (pages 221–291):
Chapter 7 Summary and Conclusions (pages 293–300):


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See also Download Antenna designs for NFC devices PDF free  and microstrip antenna design handbook pdf free download