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how to use exist statement in VHDL

- Sunday, August 2, 2015 No Comments
Exit statement is used to exist a loop when a certain condition is satisfied. It is used as control mechanism to exist looping statements.

Following is an example of using exist statement in vhdl.

library ieee;
use ieee.std_logic_1164.all; 
use ieee.numeric_std.all;

entity VHDLdesign is
    port(
    D : in std_logic_vector(3 downto 0);
    Q : out std_logic_vector(3 downto 0)
    );
end VHDLdesign;

architecture design of VHDLdesign is
begin
    process(D)   
    variable var : integer range 0 to 15 := 0;
    begin
    for k in 0 to 3 loop
        if D(k) = '1' then
            var := 1;
            if var = 3 then
                exit;
            end if;
        end if;
        Q <= std_logic_vector(to_unsigned(var,4));
    end loop;
    end process;
       
end design;

In the above code, we have counted the number of 1 in a data stream of 4 bits. When there is a 1 then variable var is incremented by 1. But when the variable integer exceeds 3 then we exit the loop, that is counting 1's. The result of counting which could be 0,1 or 2 is outputted as Q.

We can use the label of a loop for exiting the loop. For example, in the above code, if we denote the loop as loop1 then we can rewrite the above code to exit the loop1 as follows-

library ieee;
use ieee.std_logic_1164.all; 
use ieee.numeric_std.all;

entity VHDLdesign is
    port(
    D : in std_logic_vector(3 downto 0);
    Q : out std_logic_vector(3 downto 0)
    );
end VHDLdesign;

architecture design of VHDLdesign is
begin
    process(D)   
    variable var : integer range 0 to 15 := 0;
    begin
    Loop1: for k in 0 to 3 loop
        if D(k) = '1' then
            var := 1;
            if var = 3 then
                exit Loop1;
            end if;
        end if;
        Q <= std_logic_vector(to_unsigned(var,4));
    end loop;
    end process;
       
end design;

Using loop label to exit loop becomes useful when there are multiple loops.

Wireless Receiver Design for Digital Communications

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Download Wireless Receiver Design for Digital Communications, 2nd edition authored by Kevin McClaning for free. This eBook written for design engineers contains lot of wireless design example and exercises.

Wireless Receiver Design for Digital CommunicationsThere  are many RF books on wireless communication and books on electronics such as the art of electronics that provide theories and little exercises on real world RF circuit design. There are also books dedicated very deep on the operation principle of RF communication system components such as RF LNA, RF mixers and so on. Wireless Receiver Design for Digital Communication touches each essential RF parts and radio propagation with little theoretical description and more exercises and example.

This approach of writing the book was done for RF design engineers and other moderate experienced students, engineers to quickly go through the design aspect of RF and microwave receivers. It is like a handbook with lots of calculation and design example.

Some examples of calculation exercises and example is like the conversion of dBm to watt and vice versa, transmission lines, impedance matching, S-parameter in the RF basic chapter, mixer in cascade calculation in mixer design, single and double ended mixer exercises and the merits and demerits of each of them. Topics covered are- signal,noise, modulation, propagation, antenna, filters, linearity, mixers, oscillators, cascade design etc.

Download link:

http://www.filefactory.com/file/28acm65094iz/n/wirelessreceiver.pdf

Introduction to Microprocessors and Microcontrollers Download read book online free

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Download, read online Introduction to Microprocessors and Microcontrollers for free. This book is a good book on introduction to microprocessor and microcontroller. It is a suitable book for undergraduates engineering students and thus whose core subject is not computer or electronics engineering but needs to know about microprocessor and microcontroller. The book is written in easy to understand manner and includes pictures to explain the topics. It covers basic mathematics involved in computer design, different numeric representation, gates, registers, microprocessor based system, low and high programming languages, examples of popular microprocessors- pentium, powerPC, athlon XP, microcontroller and how to use them, PIC microcontroller project.

PSpice for Digital Signal Processing download | read online ebook

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Download, read online PSpice for Digital Signal Processing ebook free. This book teaches how to use Orcad capture software for Digital Signal Processing(DSP). This book is useful for engineering students to learn DSP simulation and verification of algorithms. It includes chapters on ADC/DAC and sampling, Z-Transform, difference equation, filter classification, application of DSP, FIR and IIR filters, equalizers and other topics of DSP.

Exploring C for Microcontrollers | ebook | download | read online

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Download read online Exploring C for Microcontrollers: A Hands-on Approach book free. This book targets engineers who wants to learn integration of software and hardware. The book starts by explaining microcontroller in today embedded system and how they are used in today's manufacturing industries. It explains what is embedded system and how embedded system is designed. Then the book explains software, programming language used. It explains the IDE(Integrated Development Environment). The steps involved in creating developing software for the designed embedded system is also explained. Time and memory which are constraint in the embedded system design environment is also explained. The final chapter explains programming and embedded software development using MCS51 microcontroller family.

This is a good book for learning programming microcontroller in C for engineering students as well as others.

Matlab for Dummies | download | read online

- Saturday, August 1, 2015 No Comments

 Download, read online Matlab for Dummies  by Jim Sizemore and John Paul Mueller free. This matlab book introduces Matlab software and shows what matlab software can do and what it is about. It shows readers capabilities of matlab such as manipulating and plotting data, creating function and automating tasks, importing and exporting data with matlab, solving equations with matlab and other features of matlab.

This is a good matlab book for beginners and undergraduate engineering students.